Background: Individuals with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) have a severe clinical problem in their first decade of life, which is not usually present in heterozygous FH (HeFH) individuals. For this latter group of patients, FH diagnosis is mostly severely delayed with a significant increase in the risk of angina, myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, stroke, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Methods: This study used various bioinformatics tools to analyze microarray data and identify critical miRNAs and their target genes associated with FH and its severity. Differentially expressed serum miRNAs from direct hybridization microarray data in three groups of subjects: healthy, HeFH, and HoFH. The differential expressed miRNAs were determined according to a log of fold-change (LFC) <-0.5 or >0.5 and of p < 0.05. Then, we assessed their target genes in silico. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment was applied by Cytoscape. The proteinprotein interaction and co-expression network were analyzed by the STRING and GeneMANIA plugins of Cytoscape, respectively. Results: We identified increased expression of circulating hsa-miR-604, hsa-miR-652-5p, and hsa-miR-4451 as well as reduced expression of hsa-miR-3140-3p, hsa-miR-550a-5p, and hsa-miR-363-3p in both group of FH vs. healthy subjects. Higher levels of hsa-miR-1183, hsa-miR-1185-1-3p, hsa-miR-122-5p, hsa-miR-19a-3p, hsa-miR345-3p, and hsa-miR-34c-5p were detected in HeFH in respect to HoFH when compared to healthy subjects. Most upregulated miRNAs mainly affected gene related to cardiac myofibrillogenesis, cholesterol synthesis, RNA editing for apolipoprotein B, and associated with LDL-cholesterol levels. In contrast, down-regulated miRNAs mainly affected gene related to plasma biomarker for coronary artery disease, lipids metabolism, cell adhesion and migration, genetic predictors of type 2 diabetes and cholesterol metabolism. The essential genes were primarily enriched in GO regarding biological regulation, intracellular nucleic acid binding, and the KEGG pathway of TGF-beta signaling. Conclusions: The case-control nature of this study precluded the possibility of assessing the predictive role of the identified differentially expressed miRNAs for cardiovascular events. Therefore, the signature of miRNAs reflecting the pathogenesis of both HeFH and HoFH.

Profiling of differentially expressed MicroRNAs in familial hypercholesterolemia via direct hybridization

Cione, Erika;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Individuals with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) have a severe clinical problem in their first decade of life, which is not usually present in heterozygous FH (HeFH) individuals. For this latter group of patients, FH diagnosis is mostly severely delayed with a significant increase in the risk of angina, myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, stroke, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Methods: This study used various bioinformatics tools to analyze microarray data and identify critical miRNAs and their target genes associated with FH and its severity. Differentially expressed serum miRNAs from direct hybridization microarray data in three groups of subjects: healthy, HeFH, and HoFH. The differential expressed miRNAs were determined according to a log of fold-change (LFC) <-0.5 or >0.5 and of p < 0.05. Then, we assessed their target genes in silico. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment was applied by Cytoscape. The proteinprotein interaction and co-expression network were analyzed by the STRING and GeneMANIA plugins of Cytoscape, respectively. Results: We identified increased expression of circulating hsa-miR-604, hsa-miR-652-5p, and hsa-miR-4451 as well as reduced expression of hsa-miR-3140-3p, hsa-miR-550a-5p, and hsa-miR-363-3p in both group of FH vs. healthy subjects. Higher levels of hsa-miR-1183, hsa-miR-1185-1-3p, hsa-miR-122-5p, hsa-miR-19a-3p, hsa-miR345-3p, and hsa-miR-34c-5p were detected in HeFH in respect to HoFH when compared to healthy subjects. Most upregulated miRNAs mainly affected gene related to cardiac myofibrillogenesis, cholesterol synthesis, RNA editing for apolipoprotein B, and associated with LDL-cholesterol levels. In contrast, down-regulated miRNAs mainly affected gene related to plasma biomarker for coronary artery disease, lipids metabolism, cell adhesion and migration, genetic predictors of type 2 diabetes and cholesterol metabolism. The essential genes were primarily enriched in GO regarding biological regulation, intracellular nucleic acid binding, and the KEGG pathway of TGF-beta signaling. Conclusions: The case-control nature of this study precluded the possibility of assessing the predictive role of the identified differentially expressed miRNAs for cardiovascular events. Therefore, the signature of miRNAs reflecting the pathogenesis of both HeFH and HoFH.
2024
Familial hypercholesterolemia
Microarray
miRNAs
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/366898
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