Arsenic (As) is abundant in the environment and can be found in both organic (e.g., methylated) and inorganic (e.g., arsenate and arsenite) forms. The source of As in the environment is attributed to both natural reactions and anthropogenic activities. As can also be released naturally to groundwater through As-bearing minerals including arsenopyrites, realgar, and orpiment. Similarly, agricultural and industrial activities have elevated As levels in groundwater. High levels of As in groundwater pose serious health risks and have been regulated in many developed and developing countries. In particular, the presence of inorganic forms of As in drinking water sources gained widespread attention due to their cellular and enzyme disruption activities. The research community has primarily focused on reviewing the natural occurrence and mobilization of As. Yet, As originating from anthropogenic activities, its mobility, and potential treatment techniques have not been covered. This review summarizes the origin, geochemistry, occurrence, mobilization, microbial interaction of natural and anthropogenic-As, and common remediation technologies for As removal from groundwater. In addition, As remediation methods are critically evaluated in terms of practical applicability at drinking water treatment plants, knowledge gaps, and future research needs. Finally, perspectives on As removal technologies and associated implementation limitations in developing countries and small communities are discussed.

Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater: Geochemical Basis of Treatment Technologies

Sudip Chakraborty
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Arsenic (As) is abundant in the environment and can be found in both organic (e.g., methylated) and inorganic (e.g., arsenate and arsenite) forms. The source of As in the environment is attributed to both natural reactions and anthropogenic activities. As can also be released naturally to groundwater through As-bearing minerals including arsenopyrites, realgar, and orpiment. Similarly, agricultural and industrial activities have elevated As levels in groundwater. High levels of As in groundwater pose serious health risks and have been regulated in many developed and developing countries. In particular, the presence of inorganic forms of As in drinking water sources gained widespread attention due to their cellular and enzyme disruption activities. The research community has primarily focused on reviewing the natural occurrence and mobilization of As. Yet, As originating from anthropogenic activities, its mobility, and potential treatment techniques have not been covered. This review summarizes the origin, geochemistry, occurrence, mobilization, microbial interaction of natural and anthropogenic-As, and common remediation technologies for As removal from groundwater. In addition, As remediation methods are critically evaluated in terms of practical applicability at drinking water treatment plants, knowledge gaps, and future research needs. Finally, perspectives on As removal technologies and associated implementation limitations in developing countries and small communities are discussed.
2023
Arsenic
Groundwater
Geochemistry
Occurrence
Mobilization
Remediation
Physiochemical Treatment
Biological Treatment
Passive Treatment
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/366902
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