: The biological activity of structural HIV-1 proteins is not limited to ensuring a productive viral infection but also interferes with cellular homeostasis through intra- and extracellular signaling activation. This interference induces genomic instability, increases the lifespan of the infected cell by inhibiting apoptosis, and subverts cell senescence, resulting in unrestricted cell proliferation. HIV structural proteins are present in a soluble form in the lymphoid tissues and blood of infected individuals, even without active viral replication. The HIV matrix protein p17, the envelope glycoprotein gp120, the transenvelope protein gp41, and the capsid protein p24 interact with immune cells and deregulate the biological activity of the immune system. The biological activity of HIV structural proteins is also demonstrated in endothelial cells and some tumor cell lines, confirming the ability of viral proteins to promote cell proliferation and cancer progression, even in the absence of active viral replication. This review corroborates the hypothesis that HIV structural proteins, by interacting with different cell types, contribute to creating a microenvironment that is favorable to the evolution of cancerous pathologies not classically related to AIDS.

HIV-1 Structural Proteins or Cell-Signaling Factors? That Is the Question!

Pellegrino, Michele;Giordano, Francesca;De Amicis, Francesca;Marra, Maria;Tucci, Paola;Marsico, Stefania
;
Aquaro, Stefano
2024-01-01

Abstract

: The biological activity of structural HIV-1 proteins is not limited to ensuring a productive viral infection but also interferes with cellular homeostasis through intra- and extracellular signaling activation. This interference induces genomic instability, increases the lifespan of the infected cell by inhibiting apoptosis, and subverts cell senescence, resulting in unrestricted cell proliferation. HIV structural proteins are present in a soluble form in the lymphoid tissues and blood of infected individuals, even without active viral replication. The HIV matrix protein p17, the envelope glycoprotein gp120, the transenvelope protein gp41, and the capsid protein p24 interact with immune cells and deregulate the biological activity of the immune system. The biological activity of HIV structural proteins is also demonstrated in endothelial cells and some tumor cell lines, confirming the ability of viral proteins to promote cell proliferation and cancer progression, even in the absence of active viral replication. This review corroborates the hypothesis that HIV structural proteins, by interacting with different cell types, contribute to creating a microenvironment that is favorable to the evolution of cancerous pathologies not classically related to AIDS.
2024
HIV structural proteins
HIV-1
virokine
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/368658
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