Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are standard care in patients with hypertension, heart failure or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although we have studied the RAAS for decades, there are still circumstances that remain unclear. In this review, we describe the evolution of the RAAS and pose the question of whether this survival trait is still necessary to humankind in the present age. We elucidate the benefits on cardiovascular health and kidney disease of RAAS inhibition and present promising novel medications. Furthermore, we address why more studies are needed to establish a new standard of care away from generally prescribing ACEi or ARB toward an improved approach to combine drugs tailored to the needs of individual patients.

Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System: From History to Practice of a Secular Topic

Zaza, Gianluigi
;
Provenzano, Michele
2024-01-01

Abstract

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are standard care in patients with hypertension, heart failure or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although we have studied the RAAS for decades, there are still circumstances that remain unclear. In this review, we describe the evolution of the RAAS and pose the question of whether this survival trait is still necessary to humankind in the present age. We elucidate the benefits on cardiovascular health and kidney disease of RAAS inhibition and present promising novel medications. Furthermore, we address why more studies are needed to establish a new standard of care away from generally prescribing ACEi or ARB toward an improved approach to combine drugs tailored to the needs of individual patients.
2024
CKD
ESKD
RAAS
albuminuria
aldosterone
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/369140
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