Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex and multifactorial disease, and one of the most prevalent worldwide. Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD) with biochemical and hormonal alterations are part of the complications associated with the progression of CKD. Pathophysiology of CKD-MBD focused on abnormalities in serum levels of several biomarkers (such as FGF-23, klotho, phosphate, calcium, vitamin D, and PTH) which are discussed in this review. We therefore examine the prognostic association between CKD-MBD and the increased risk for cardiovascular events, mortality, and CKD progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Lastly, we present specific treatments acting on CKD to prevent and treat the complications associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT): control of hyperphosphatemia (with dietary restriction, intestinal phosphate binders, and adequate dialysis), the use of calcimimetic agents, vitamin D, and analogues, and the use of bisphosphonates or denosumab in patients with osteoporosis.

Mineral Bone Disorders in Kidney Disease Patients: The Ever-Current Topic

Provenzano, Michele
;
Garofalo, Carlo;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex and multifactorial disease, and one of the most prevalent worldwide. Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD) with biochemical and hormonal alterations are part of the complications associated with the progression of CKD. Pathophysiology of CKD-MBD focused on abnormalities in serum levels of several biomarkers (such as FGF-23, klotho, phosphate, calcium, vitamin D, and PTH) which are discussed in this review. We therefore examine the prognostic association between CKD-MBD and the increased risk for cardiovascular events, mortality, and CKD progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Lastly, we present specific treatments acting on CKD to prevent and treat the complications associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT): control of hyperphosphatemia (with dietary restriction, intestinal phosphate binders, and adequate dialysis), the use of calcimimetic agents, vitamin D, and analogues, and the use of bisphosphonates or denosumab in patients with osteoporosis.
2022
CKD–MBD
ESKD
cardiovascular
epidemiology
kidney
prognosis
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/369174
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 28
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 22
social impact