Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and specifically, diabetic kidney disease (DKD) occurs in up to 30% of all diabetic patients. Kidney disease attributed to diabetes is a major contributor to the global burden of the disease in terms of clinical and socio-economic impact, not only because of the risk of progression to End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD), but also because of the associated increase in cardiovascular (CV) risk. Despite the introduction of novel treatments that allow us to reduce the risk of future outcomes, a striking residual cardiorenal risk has been reported. This risk is explained by both the heterogeneity of DKD and the individual variability in response to nephroprotective treatments. Strategies that have been proposed to improve DKD patient care are to develop novel biomarkers that classify with greater accuracy patients with respect to their future risk (prognostic) and biomarkers that are able to predict the response to nephroprotective treatment (predictive). In this review, we summarize the principal prognostic biomarkers of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the novel markers that help clinicians to individualize treatments and the basis of the characteristics that predict an optimal response.

Precision Nephrology in Patients with Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

Provenzano, Michele
;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and specifically, diabetic kidney disease (DKD) occurs in up to 30% of all diabetic patients. Kidney disease attributed to diabetes is a major contributor to the global burden of the disease in terms of clinical and socio-economic impact, not only because of the risk of progression to End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD), but also because of the associated increase in cardiovascular (CV) risk. Despite the introduction of novel treatments that allow us to reduce the risk of future outcomes, a striking residual cardiorenal risk has been reported. This risk is explained by both the heterogeneity of DKD and the individual variability in response to nephroprotective treatments. Strategies that have been proposed to improve DKD patient care are to develop novel biomarkers that classify with greater accuracy patients with respect to their future risk (prognostic) and biomarkers that are able to predict the response to nephroprotective treatment (predictive). In this review, we summarize the principal prognostic biomarkers of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the novel markers that help clinicians to individualize treatments and the basis of the characteristics that predict an optimal response.
2022
cardiovascular risk
eGFR
end stage kidney disease
personalized medicine
proteinuria
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/369184
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