Context. The evolution of Alfv & eacute;n waves in cylindrical magnetic flux tubes, which represent a basic model for loops observed in the solar corona, can be affected by phase mixing and turbulent cascade. Phase mixing results from transverse inhomogeneities in the Alfv & eacute;n speed, causing different shells of the flux tube to oscillate at different frequencies, thus forming increasingly smaller spatial scales in the direction perpendicular to the guide field. Turbulent cascade also contributes to the dissipation of the bulk energy of the waves through the generation of smaller spatial scales. Both processes present characteristic timescales. Different regimes can be envisaged according to how those timescales are related and to the typical timescale at which dissipation is at work. Aims. We investigate the interplay of phase mixing and the nonlinear turbulent cascade in the evolution and dissipation of Alfv & eacute;n waves using compressible magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. We consider perturbations in the form of torsional waves, both propagating and standing, or turbulent fluctuations, or a combination of the two. The main purpose is to study how phase mixing and nonlinear couplings jointly work to produce small scales in different regimes. Methods. We conducted a numerical campaign to explore the typical parameters, such as the loop length, the amplitude and spatial profile of the perturbations, and the dissipative coefficients. A pseudo-spectral code was employed to solve the three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations, modeling the evolution of perturbations propagating in a flux tube corresponding to an equilibrium configuration with cylindrical symmetry. Results. We find that phase mixing takes place for moderate amplitudes of the turbulent component even in a distorted, nonaxisymmetric configuration, building small scales that are locally transverse to the density gradient. The dissipative time decreases with increasing the percentage of the turbulent component. This behavior is verified both for propagating and standing waves. Even in the fully turbulent case, a mechanism qualitatively similar to phase mixing occurs: it actively generates small scales together with the nonlinear cascade, thus providing the shortest dissipative time. General considerations are given to identify this regime in the parameter space. The turbulent perturbation also distorts the background density, locally increasing the Alfv & eacute;n velocity gradient and further contributing to accelerating the formation of small scales. Conclusions. Our campaign of simulations is relevant for the coronal plasma where Reynolds and Lundquist numbers are extremely high. For sufficiently low perturbation amplitudes, phase mixing and turbulence work synergically, speeding up the dissipation of the perturbation energy: phase mixing dominates at early times and nonlinear effects at later times. We find that the dissipative time is shorter than those of phase mixing and the nonlinear cascade when individually considered.

### Joint action of phase mixing and nonlinear effects in MHD waves propagating in coronal loops

#####
*Meringolo, C.*^{};Pucci, F.;Pezzi, O.;Servidio, S.;Malara, F.

^{};Pucci, F.;Pezzi, O.;Servidio, S.;Malara, F.

##### 2024-01-01

#### Abstract

Context. The evolution of Alfv & eacute;n waves in cylindrical magnetic flux tubes, which represent a basic model for loops observed in the solar corona, can be affected by phase mixing and turbulent cascade. Phase mixing results from transverse inhomogeneities in the Alfv & eacute;n speed, causing different shells of the flux tube to oscillate at different frequencies, thus forming increasingly smaller spatial scales in the direction perpendicular to the guide field. Turbulent cascade also contributes to the dissipation of the bulk energy of the waves through the generation of smaller spatial scales. Both processes present characteristic timescales. Different regimes can be envisaged according to how those timescales are related and to the typical timescale at which dissipation is at work. Aims. We investigate the interplay of phase mixing and the nonlinear turbulent cascade in the evolution and dissipation of Alfv & eacute;n waves using compressible magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. We consider perturbations in the form of torsional waves, both propagating and standing, or turbulent fluctuations, or a combination of the two. The main purpose is to study how phase mixing and nonlinear couplings jointly work to produce small scales in different regimes. Methods. We conducted a numerical campaign to explore the typical parameters, such as the loop length, the amplitude and spatial profile of the perturbations, and the dissipative coefficients. A pseudo-spectral code was employed to solve the three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations, modeling the evolution of perturbations propagating in a flux tube corresponding to an equilibrium configuration with cylindrical symmetry. Results. We find that phase mixing takes place for moderate amplitudes of the turbulent component even in a distorted, nonaxisymmetric configuration, building small scales that are locally transverse to the density gradient. The dissipative time decreases with increasing the percentage of the turbulent component. This behavior is verified both for propagating and standing waves. Even in the fully turbulent case, a mechanism qualitatively similar to phase mixing occurs: it actively generates small scales together with the nonlinear cascade, thus providing the shortest dissipative time. General considerations are given to identify this regime in the parameter space. The turbulent perturbation also distorts the background density, locally increasing the Alfv & eacute;n velocity gradient and further contributing to accelerating the formation of small scales. Conclusions. Our campaign of simulations is relevant for the coronal plasma where Reynolds and Lundquist numbers are extremely high. For sufficiently low perturbation amplitudes, phase mixing and turbulence work synergically, speeding up the dissipation of the perturbation energy: phase mixing dominates at early times and nonlinear effects at later times. We find that the dissipative time is shorter than those of phase mixing and the nonlinear cascade when individually considered.I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.