GPR30, also known as GPER, has been suggested to mediate rapid effects induced by estrogens in diverse normal and cancer tissues. Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors involved in apoptosis, cell survival, and proliferation. The response to low oxygen environment is mainly mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor named HIF-1α, which activates signaling pathways leading to adaptive mechanisms in tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that the hypoxia induces HIF-1α expression, which in turn mediates the up-regulation of GPER and its downstream target CTGF in estrogen receptor-negative SkBr3 breast cancer cells and in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Moreover, we show that HIF-1α-responsive elements located within the promoter region of GPER are involved in hypoxia-dependent transcription of GPER, which requires the ROS-induced activation of EGFR/ERK signaling in both SkBr3 and HL-1 and cells. Interestingly, the apoptotic response to hypoxia was prevented by estrogens through GPER in SkBr3 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the hypoxia-induced expression of GPER may be included among the mechanisms involved in the anti-apoptotic effects elicited by estrogens, particularly in a low oxygen microenvironment.

The G Protein-coupled Receptor 30 Is Up-regulated by Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) in Breast Cancer Cells and Cardiomyocytes

VIVACQUA, Adele;SISCI, Diego;PANNO, Maria Luisa;ANDO', Sebastiano;MAGGIOLINI, Marcello
2011-01-01

Abstract

GPR30, also known as GPER, has been suggested to mediate rapid effects induced by estrogens in diverse normal and cancer tissues. Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors involved in apoptosis, cell survival, and proliferation. The response to low oxygen environment is mainly mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor named HIF-1α, which activates signaling pathways leading to adaptive mechanisms in tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that the hypoxia induces HIF-1α expression, which in turn mediates the up-regulation of GPER and its downstream target CTGF in estrogen receptor-negative SkBr3 breast cancer cells and in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Moreover, we show that HIF-1α-responsive elements located within the promoter region of GPER are involved in hypoxia-dependent transcription of GPER, which requires the ROS-induced activation of EGFR/ERK signaling in both SkBr3 and HL-1 and cells. Interestingly, the apoptotic response to hypoxia was prevented by estrogens through GPER in SkBr3 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the hypoxia-induced expression of GPER may be included among the mechanisms involved in the anti-apoptotic effects elicited by estrogens, particularly in a low oxygen microenvironment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/124111
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