A total of 141 samples mostly located in the Coastal Chain and the Sila Massif of Northern Calabria have been collected from 125 different springs and analyzed chemically and for the isotopic ratios 2H/1H and 18O/16O of water, with the ultimate aim to investigate isotope-elevation relationships for local meteoric waters. The Small Springs Method (SSM) has been adopted for this purpose. The hydrogeological characteristics of the watersheds of interest indicate that the sampled springs are discharged from water circuits hosted in alluvial and colluvial deposits rather than in the underlying rock substrata. The chemical characteristics of the sampled waters suggest that they are immature and related to shallow and short water circuits, in spite of the variable degree of chemical evolution. The spring waters of relatively high Total Ionic Salinity (TIS >12.5 meq/L) and those from watersheds of comparatively large elevation range (>650 m) and relatively large areas (>17 km2) have been excluded from the analysis of elevation-isotope relationships. An oxygen isotope lapse rate of -0.194 ‰/100 m has been found for the spring water samples of Northern Calabria as a whole, whereas the obtained hydrogen isotope lapse rates are -1.23 ‰/100 m for the Coastal Chain and -1.45 ‰/100 m for the Sila Massif based on measured isotope values and optimized elevation. The following O-isotopes equation is recommended to estimate the average elevation (Hi in m) of the recharge areas of Northern Calabria aquifer systems:δO18=-0.00194·Hi-5.91 (1). The maximum estimated uncertainty due to variations in the δ18O value over time is 202 m. Use of H isotopes is not recommended for constraining average recharge elevations due to important local variations, reflecting in different relations for the Coastal Chain and the Sila Massif. Assuming that Equation (1) holds true throughout Northern Calabria, an iso-distribution map of the δ18O value in rainfall has been drawn for this area.
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|Titolo:||The Small Spring Method (SSM) for the definition of stable isotope - elevation relationships in Northern Calabria (Southern Italy)|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|