In this paper we present X-Learn, an XML-based, multi-agent system for supporting ‘‘user-device’’ adaptive e-learning,i.e. e-learning activities which take into account the profile, past behaviour, preferences and needs of users, as well as thecharacteristics of the devices they use for these activities. X-Learn is characterized by the following features: (i) it is highlysubjective, since it handles quite a rich and detailed user profile that plays a key role during the learning activities; (ii) it isdynamic and flexible, i.e. it is capable of reacting to variations in user exigencies and objectives; (iii) it is device-adaptive,since it decides the learning objects to present to the user on the basis of the device he is currently using; (iv) it is generic, i.e.it is capable of operating in a large variety of learning contexts; (v) it is XML based, since it exploits many facilities ofXML technology for handling and exchanging information related to e-learning activities. The paper also reports variousexperimental results, as well as a comparison between X-Learn and other related e-learning management systems alreadypresented in the literature.
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