Orchids are fascinating for many reasons: their reproductive strategies, their pollination systems and the various morphological adaptations they have evolved, including the presence of pollen grains agglomerated into two masses, called pollinia, which form a structure known as a pollinarium. After withdrawal from a flower, the pollinarium undergoes a bending movement such that the pollen masses become correctly orientated to strike the stigma. We evaluated the duration of pollinator visits to inflorescences and the effects of temperature on pollinaria reconfiguration in eight orchid species in order to analyze the effects of increasing air temperature on the changes in bending time, and thus on geitonogamy levels. The impact of temperature on insect behavior was not assessed because our priority was to understand the effects of temperature on the process of pollinaria reconfiguration. All the examined species showed natural reconfiguration times that were 1.7-3.0 times longer than the pollinator residency times. A higher temperature showed a reduction in bending time regardless of the species tested. However, the bending time was never shorter than the residence time of the insects on the flower. Our data showed that high temperatures had a limited effect on the pollinarium reconfiguration time, thus indicating that high temperatures had a limited effect on folding compared to the effect that it had on the viability of the pollen.

Pollinaria Reconfiguration Mechanism of Widespread Euro-Mediterranean Orchids: The Effects of Increasing Air Temperature

Lanzino, Micaela
;
Palermo, Anna Maria;Pellegrino, Giuseppe
2022

Abstract

Orchids are fascinating for many reasons: their reproductive strategies, their pollination systems and the various morphological adaptations they have evolved, including the presence of pollen grains agglomerated into two masses, called pollinia, which form a structure known as a pollinarium. After withdrawal from a flower, the pollinarium undergoes a bending movement such that the pollen masses become correctly orientated to strike the stigma. We evaluated the duration of pollinator visits to inflorescences and the effects of temperature on pollinaria reconfiguration in eight orchid species in order to analyze the effects of increasing air temperature on the changes in bending time, and thus on geitonogamy levels. The impact of temperature on insect behavior was not assessed because our priority was to understand the effects of temperature on the process of pollinaria reconfiguration. All the examined species showed natural reconfiguration times that were 1.7-3.0 times longer than the pollinator residency times. A higher temperature showed a reduction in bending time regardless of the species tested. However, the bending time was never shorter than the residence time of the insects on the flower. Our data showed that high temperatures had a limited effect on the pollinarium reconfiguration time, thus indicating that high temperatures had a limited effect on folding compared to the effect that it had on the viability of the pollen.
orchids
pollinaria bending
pollinaria reconfiguration
pollinarium
pollinators
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/334360
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact