The structural characterization of a new flavonoid from bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia Risso) carrying the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl (HMG) ester moiety has been accomplished, and its antioxidant ability was tested from a chemical point of view. The peculiarity of the new molecule, named peripolin, relies on the presence of the HMG chemical group linked to the sugar portion of neoeriocitrin; the structure was elucidated using both high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments performed on the purified molecule extracted from the fruit. The antioxidant ability of the new molecule was tested by classical chemical approaches, such as DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, and from a theoretical point of view. 1H and 13C NMR experiments and HR-ESI-MS/MS experiments show unequivocally that the HMG moiety is linked to the primary position of the glucose unit of neohesperidose, while the chemical tests and the computational results show that peripolin possesses strong antioxidant behavior, similar to that of neoeriocitrin and remarkably higher respect to the other flavonoids present in the fruit. Furthermore, the quantitative assays carried out by UPLC-MS/MS showed that its amount in the fruit is similar to that of the other main flavonoids. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations allowed us to investigate the possible conformations adopted by the antioxidants in the presence of water molecules. In particular, the switch of open-closed conformations of HMG-containing species was evidenced. As far as the reaction with DPPH, the calculation of ∆Grea supported the experimental outcomes regarding the peripolin and neoeriocitrin activity. In conclusion, bergamot fruit, already known for its potential to lower the level of blood cholesterol, has been proven to contain molecules such as neoeriocitrin and the newly characterized peripolin, which could have important in-vivo antioxidant characteristics.

Structural Characterization of Peripolin and Study of Antioxidant Activity of HMG Flavonoids from Bergamot Fruit

Lucia Bartella;Fabio Mazzotti;Ines Rosita Talarico;Giuseppina De Luca;Ilaria Santoro;Mario Prejanò;Tiziana Marino;Leonardo Di Donna
2022

Abstract

The structural characterization of a new flavonoid from bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia Risso) carrying the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl (HMG) ester moiety has been accomplished, and its antioxidant ability was tested from a chemical point of view. The peculiarity of the new molecule, named peripolin, relies on the presence of the HMG chemical group linked to the sugar portion of neoeriocitrin; the structure was elucidated using both high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments performed on the purified molecule extracted from the fruit. The antioxidant ability of the new molecule was tested by classical chemical approaches, such as DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, and from a theoretical point of view. 1H and 13C NMR experiments and HR-ESI-MS/MS experiments show unequivocally that the HMG moiety is linked to the primary position of the glucose unit of neohesperidose, while the chemical tests and the computational results show that peripolin possesses strong antioxidant behavior, similar to that of neoeriocitrin and remarkably higher respect to the other flavonoids present in the fruit. Furthermore, the quantitative assays carried out by UPLC-MS/MS showed that its amount in the fruit is similar to that of the other main flavonoids. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations allowed us to investigate the possible conformations adopted by the antioxidants in the presence of water molecules. In particular, the switch of open-closed conformations of HMG-containing species was evidenced. As far as the reaction with DPPH, the calculation of ∆Grea supported the experimental outcomes regarding the peripolin and neoeriocitrin activity. In conclusion, bergamot fruit, already known for its potential to lower the level of blood cholesterol, has been proven to contain molecules such as neoeriocitrin and the newly characterized peripolin, which could have important in-vivo antioxidant characteristics.
bergamot; citrus bergamia; high-resolution mass spectrometry; structure elucidation; HMG flavonoids; statin; peripolin; antioxidant activity
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11770/337346
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