: For simplifying and speeding up the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, there has been a proliferation of IoT platforms, built up according to different design principles, computing paradigms, technologies, and targets. This paper proposes a review of main examples populating the wide landscape of IoT platforms and their comparison based on the IoT-A reference architecture. In such a way, heterogeneous IoT platforms (both current and future) can be analyzed regardless of their low-level specifications but exclusively through the lens of those key functionalities and architectural building blocks that enable the interplay among devices, data flow, software, and stakeholders within the IoT ecosystem. Among these, security by design (i.e., the inclusion of security design principles, technology, and governance at every level) must be integrated into every tier, component, and application to minimize the risk of cyber threats and preserve the integrity of the IoT platforms, not only within individual components but also for all the components working together as a whole.
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